Intrapartum care for a positive childbirth experience | The World Health Organization
This guideline brings together new and existing WHO recommendations that, when delivered as a package, will ensure good-quality and evidence-based care irrespective of the setting or level of health care.
It highlights the importance of woman-centred care to optimize the experience of labour and childbirth for women and their babies.
Scientists from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have found that children from lower income homes who were involved in conversations with parents had developed language skills in a specific area of the brain (Broca’s area) comparable to children in higher-income families.
Studying conversations between children between 4 and 6 years of age, the researchers found that differences in the number of “conversational turns” accounted for a large portion of the differences in brain physiology and language skills that they found among the children. This finding applied to children regardless of parental income or education.
They concluded that conversational experience has a greater impact on children’s neural language processing in the brain over and above the sheer quantity of words heard. This refutes previous findings in an influential 1995 study which found that children from higher-income families hear about 30 million more words during their first three years of life than children from lower-income families.
The researchers credit their findings to interactive conversations, which enable children to practise their communication, interpreting what others are saying and respond to them appropriately. The lead author of the paper explained, “the important thing is not just to talk to your child, but to talk with your child. It’s not just about dumping language into your child’s brain, but to actually carry on a conversation with them.”
While children from higher-income families were exposed to more language on average, children from lower-income families who experienced a high number of conversational turns had language skills and Broca’s area brain activity similar to those of children who came from higher-income families.
An online survey of local authority telecare managers, funded by the National Institute for Health Research School for Social Care Research (NIHR SSCR), forms the basis of a new report published this month. The UTOPOIA project (Using Telecare for Older People In Adult Social Care) study sought to understand how telecare is being used by local authority adult social care departments to support older people; the largest single group of social care users.
The context for this study was an earlier Department of Health funded randomised controlled trial which became known as the Whole System Demonstrator (WSD) project. This study concluded that telecare did not produce better outcomes for recipients over a 12 month follow-up period but these findings do not appear to have led to a reappraisal of the value of telecare by local authorities.
The data collected in the UTOPIA survey, which had an overall response rate of 75%, had representation from all types of local authority and regions in England.
The survey findings suggest that telecare in most local authorities is intended to save money. Interest in telecare is likely to be directly related to continuing public sector austerity policies of the current and previous Government but also to wider social change and affluence among many older people.
The full report can be downloaded from King’s College here
Full reference: Woolham, J. G., et al |2018| The UTOPIA project. Using Telecare for Older People In Adult social care: The findings of a 2016-17 national survey of local authority telecare provision for older people in England |Social Care Workforce Research Unit, King’s College London|
This resource provides an overview of the different approaches to working with communities for improving health and illustrates the vital role that they have in improving health and wellbeing. The Kings Fund has produced this reading list for those who want to explore the topic of communities and health in more detail.
The following questions and areas are examined:
What is a ‘community’?
What is the role of communities in improving health?
Health policy and the role of communities in health
Type 2 diabetes is a growing epidemic, costing the NHS £23.7 billion per year. By 2016 there were nearly 3.6 million people diagnosed with diabetes in the UK and a further one million estimated to have undiagnosed type 2 diabetes. Rates of diabetes appear to be increasing.
This study aimed to see if a very low-calorie diet program delivered in primary care could lead to at least 15kg weight loss and remission of type 2 diabetes.
The study found that by 12 months:
Weight loss of 15kg or more was achieved by 24% of the intervention group compared to none of the usual care group. Average weight loss was 10kg in the intervention group versus 1kg in the usual care group.
Diabetes remission occurred in 46% of the intervention group compared to 4% of the usual care group. It only occurred in people who had lost weight.
Remission was 20 times more likely with the intervention.
Better adherence to the regime increased the amount of weight loss and the chance of diabetes remission.
Diabetes medication did not need to be reintroduced for 74% of the intervention group. This was compared to 18% of the usual care group who were able to stop them. Blood pressure tablets were also no longer required for 68% of the intervention group compared to 39% of the usual care group.
A UK study that analysed data data from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) (1986-2012), a large primary care database has identified a link between having acne and experiencing depression. The study found the risk of depression was highest within one year after being diagnosed with the skin condition.
One of the lead researchers, Dr. Isabelle Vallerand, of the University of Calgary, in Canada, suggests the findings of the study demonstrate the impact that skin can have on an individual’s mental health. “For these patients with acne, it is more than a skin blemish — it can impose significant mental health concerns and should be taken seriously.”